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Checklist For Preparation Of Manuscripts And Illustrations
download Word document, check each item,
and submit either as hard copy or electronic document with your manuscript
Check items (X = done; 0 = n.a.), rename file (e.g., Smith Checklist.doc),
and submit with manuscript
- Membership in ASPT is required for at least one author from date of manuscript submission through to publication. Not a member? Sign up on our online membership application site or contact the ASPT Business Office to join now (email@example.com).
- Consult current issues for guidance on format.
- Read Information for Authors on inside back cover of most recent issue or the web site.
- Double-space throughout. Do not justify right margin. Either American or international spelling is acceptable.
- Use line numbering on initial submission to facilitate reviews of electronic manuscripts (do not use on revised manuscripts submitted for final acceptance).
- Font formatting in manuscript corresponds to that used in the journal (e.g., italics for genus and species names; Large and Small Capitals for primary headings and short title on title page; Bold Italics for second level headings, etc.).
- Do not italicize common Latin words or phrases (e.g., et al., i.e., sensu, etc.).
- Include surname(s) of author(s) and page number as a header on all manuscript pages.
- Assemble manuscript in this order: 1) Title page, 2) Abstract page, 3) Text, 4) Literature Cited, 5) Tables, 6) Appendices, if any, 7) Figure legends. A tiff file for each figure must be submitted separately, prepared following the instructions in section IX, below.
II. Title Page (Page 1)
- Running head 6-8 lines below top of page, in all capital letters, no italics, and right justified. Include author(s) surname(s), colon, and a short title (total characters including spaces must not exceed 70).
- Center title, in upper and lower case, bold. Omit authors of scientific names. Include family in parentheses unless the genus is the type for the family.
- Below title, list all author names in bold upper and lower case in one centered paragraph. Author names are followed by author addresses starting on next line. Each address is a separate, centered paragraph. Addresses are written out in full without abbreviation. Include country in address, including those in the U.S.A.
- Use superscript numbers following author names and preceding addresses to associate each author and the appropriate address. Commas between author names precede superscripts. Example- John J. Jones,1,3 Amy A. Anderson,2 and Steve S. Staley1. Superscript number(s) following author(s) name(s) are also used to indicate any new addresses. New addresses are numbered sequentially after all author primary addresses.
- Author for correspondence may be designated using a superscript number. The "Author for correspondence" follows on a new line following author addresses and should be the final superscript number used. Include email address in parentheses.
III. Abstract Page (Page 2)
- Abstract must be one paragraph and begins with the word "Abstract" followed by an em-dash (—). For example, Abstract—Morphology and molecular data….
- Do not cite references, taxonomic authorities, or use abbreviations in the abstract.
- Be concise (usually not more than 200 words), but include brief statements about the paper's intent, materials and methods, results, and findings.
- Include all new taxonomic names and new combinations, in boldface.
- Below abstract, as a separate paragraph, include up to six non-title keywords (or short phrases such as ‘adaptive radiation’) in alphabetical order, separated by commas, and with a period following the final term. This section should begin with ‘Keywords’ in bold italics. The keywords themselves should not be in bold. For example, Keywords—Adaptive radiation, chloroplast DNA, nuclear nitrate reductase gene, phylogeography, Ulmus.
IV. Text (Page 3, etc.)
- Cite each figure and table in the text. Organize text, as far as possible, so that they are cited in numerical order. Use “Figure” only to start a sentence; otherwise, “Fig.” or “Figs.”
- Use these abbreviations without spelling out or punctuation: hr, min, sec, yr, mo, wk, d, diam, m, cm, mm, µm; designate temperature as 30°C.
- Write out other abbreviations first time used in the text; abbreviate thereafter. “Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used....”
- Numbers: Write out one to nine unless a measurement or in taxonomic descriptions (e.g., four samples, 3 mm, 35 sites, 6 yr). Use 1,000 instead of 1000; 0.13 instead of .13; % instead of percent. Number ranges should be separated by an en-dash (–)
- If three or more words are joined by a conjunction, use a comma after each word except the last. Example - red, black, and white.
- Each reference cited in the text must be listed in Literature Cited section, and vice versa.
- Literature citations in the text are as follows:
One author- Jones (1990) or (Jones 1990). No comma is used.
Two authors- Jones and Jackson (1990) or (Jones and Jackson 1990). No comma is used.
Three or more authors- Jones et al. (1990) or (Jones et al. 1990). No comma is used.
Multiple references for same author- Jones (1990, 1994) or (Jones 1990, 1994).
Jones and Smith (in press) or (Jones and Smith, in press)
J. Jones (unpubl. data); J. Jones (in mss.); (J. Jones, pers. obs.); or J. Jones (pers. comm.)
- Ranges of page numbers should be separated by an en-dash (–).
- Within parentheses, use a semicolon to separate different types of citation (Fig. 4; Table 2) and (Felix and Smith 1988; Jones and Anderson 1989). Cite several references within parentheses by year, with the oldest one first.
- Main headings are large and small capital letters and centered on one line. The following are typical main headings: Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Taxonomic Treatment (no Introduction, Conclusion, or Summary sections). Summary or conclusions must be incorporated in discussion.
- Second level headings are Bold Italics with normal indentation. Capitalize first letter of each word. Headings are followed by a dash.
- Third level headings are Large and Small Capitals followed by a dash, with normal indentation.
- Taxonomic authorities should be cited for all taxon names at generic rank and below at their first usage in the text, or referenced in a table.
- Acknowledgements follows discussion section. Style is same as third level heading - the paragraph begins with Acknowledgements in large and small capitals followed by an em-dash (—), indent first line.
V. Taxonomic Treatment
- For nomenclatural matter (i.e., synonymy, typification) use one paragraph per homotypic basionym (see recent Systematic Botany or Regnum Vegitabile 58:39-40. 1968). Heterotypic basionyms are in separate paragraphs.
- New names and new combinations should be in bold (not italicized). All other names of accepted taxa should be in large and small capitals (not italicized). Names of synonyms are italicized in upper and lower case.
- Use authors of plant names as posted on The International Plant Names Index website (http://www.ipni.org/) for authors of botanical names. Authors should be given the first time a name is mentioned, or alternately in a table where all relevant names are listed (e.g., table of voucher specimens).
- References cited only as part of nomenclatural matter and not elsewhere are not included in literature cited; use TL-2 for abbreviations.
- Use Index Herbariorum acronyms for designations of herbaria. If specimens are cited, use the following forms:
TYPE: MEXICO. Nuevo León: 24 km S of San Roberto Jct., 26 Sep 1970, Turner 6214 (holotype: TEX!; isotype: UC!).
Representative Specimens Examined. U.S.A. Michigan: Lapeer Co., along Flint River, 1.5 mi NE Columbiaville, 5 Jul 1955, Beal s.n. (NCSC). Ohio: Wood Co., just W Scotch ridge, 7 Jun 1955, Beal 1073 (US).
Each country begins a new paragraph.
- Descriptions of new taxa (species and below) should include the following: 1) an illustration (line drawing) clearly showing the diagnostic characters, 2) a comparison with related (or sympatric, or similar) taxa in a dichotomous key or table, and 3) a discussion of the characteristics, ecology, geography, or reproductive biology, etc. that are the basis for its distinctiveness.
- Abbreviate subspecies as subsp.
VI. Literature Cited
(Continue page numbering, include in same file as text. Not a separate file.)
- Verify all entries against original sources, especially journal titles, volume and page numbers, accents, diacritical marks, and spelling in languages other than English. Capitalize all nouns in German.
- Cite references in strict alphabetical order by first author's surname. References by a single author precede multiauthored works by same senior author, regardless of date. Of those multiauthored works, 1) references with two authors precede all other multiauthored works and are listed in alphabetical order, and 2) references with three or more authors are listed in alphabetical order of authors, regardless of the number of authors involved.
- List works by the same author(s) chronologically, beginning with earliest date of publication.
- Write out all authors' names, even if the first author is the same for succeeding citations. "In press" citations must have been accepted for publication and the name of the journal or publisher included.
- Insert a period and space after each initial of an author's name.
- Leave one space between the colon following the volume number and the page number(s).
- Write out journal titles in full using italics font. Do not use abbreviations.
- Write author's names in upper and lower case.
- Citations should be in the format:
Authors. Year. Title. Pp. no.-no. in Book title, ed. Editor. City: Publisher.
- Examples of various citations:
- DO NOT USE TABS TO MAKE HANGING INDENTS. Use paragraph formatting command.
Kim, S.-C., D. J. Crawford, J. Francisco-Ortega, and A. Santos-Guerra. 1996. A common origin for woody Sonchus and five related genera in the Macaronesian islands: molecular evidence for extensive radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 93: 7743-7748.
Specht, C. D. and D. W. Stevenson. In press. A new generic taxonomy for the monocot family Costaceae (Zingiberales). Taxon.
Smith, C. F. 1998. A flora of the Santa Barbara region, California. Ed. 2. Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara Botanic Garden.
Nooteboom, H. P. 2003. Symplocaceae. Pp. 443–449 in The families and genera of vascular plants vol. 6, ed. K. Kubitzki. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Swofford, D. L. 1998. PAUP* Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (*and other methods), v. 4.0 beta 10. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.
Bauml, J. A. 1979. A study of the genus Hymenocallis (Amaryllidaceae) in Mexico. M.S. thesis. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University.
(Continue page numbering, include in same file as text and literature cited.)
- Each table must start on a separate page, double-spaced.
- Include tables in manuscript file, use page or section breaks and landscape layout as necessary to fit the table on the page. Use legal-size paper if necessary to allow adequate margins.
- The title should be indented and begin with the word Table (large and small caps.) and number (in Arabic) followed by a period.
- Do not use footnotes; instead, add notes to the end of the table caption.
- Do not use vertical lines in tables.
- DO NOT use tabs or spaces to align columns. Use the table building and formatting tools in your word processing package.
- Lists of voucher specimens, GenBank numbers, character lists, and any material that is long enough to disrupt the readability of the manuscript should be an appendix, not a table.
VIII. Figure Legends
(Continue page numbering, include in same file as text. Not a separate file)
- Double-space legends and group them according to figure arrangements. Quadruple space between groups.
- Do not use a separate page for each group.
- Type legends in paragraph form, starting with statement of inclusive numbers:
Figs. 3-5. Seeds of orchids. 3. At germination. 4. 2 wk after germination. 5. Seedlings.
Fig. 6. Ipomopsis spicata subsp. robruthii. A. Habit. B. Flower.
IX. Preparation of Illustrations
- Important: Illustrations are either black and white half-tones (photographs), drawings, or graphs. Authors must pay costs for color illustrations.
- Prepare illustrations using professional standards. Lines should meet in sharp corners without inappropriate gaps or irregularities, Latin plant names should be italicized, letters and objects should be sharp and not evidently pixellated. Proofread figures carefully. They are the most difficult part of the paper to revise on short notice, or in proof. Printer will not edit or otherwise alter digital figure files in any way.
- Final figures should be submitted as tiff files. Line art (e.g., cladograms, botanical illustrations) must be at least 1200 pixels per inch (473 pixels per cm). Photographs (grayscale or color) must be a minimum of 350 dpi (138 pixels per cm). Images with mixed line art and grayscale must be at least 900 pixels per inch (354 pixels per cm). Be sure to check resolution when the figure is printed at the appropriate size for the journal. Two widths are possible for figures: a full-page width figure is 177 mm wide, and a one-column width figure is 85 mm wide. Full page height is 240 mm (9.5 inches), but allow space for the caption if possible.
- Files must be rasterized or scanned at the full resolution. Rasterizing at a low resolution and later re-saving at a higher resolution will NOT improve the image quality. If you are scanning a paper illustration, make sure the hardcopy is sharp and clear, and both it and the scanning glass are clean. Dust removal/image editing is the author's responsibility.
- Color graphics must be CMYK mode (not RGB). For color graphics, the printer requires a hardcopy printout of the digital image that must match the digital file and show the colors as you want them to appear—submit this hardcopy with the digital images and the final manuscript.
- Illustrations of highly magnified areas require a scale bar; a numerical magnification may also be included in the caption. Be sure to calculate magnification accordingly if reproduction is not at 100%.
- Include a scale and references to latitude and longitude on each map.
- Group several drawings to form a plate of drawings, in the same order as discussed in the text. If several photos are included, group them into one or more plates.
- Be sure to save black and white images as grayscale or bitmap, not color (images saved as color take up much more memory).
- Do not save layers! (in Photoshop, choose "Flatten Image" from the Layer menu).
- Crop the image so the image extends from edge to edge - there should be no blank white margins.
- Save as a tiff file using LZW compression (an option in Photoshop). (Do not use jpeg, which degrades images - line art is especially badly degraded in jpegs).
- If you follow these recommendations, most illustrations will be small enough to email.
- Consult with editor if uncertain whether image file will be acceptable.
- All sequences used as data must be deposited in one of the international nucleotide sequence databases, preferably GenBank. Post-review final manuscript will not be accepted until sequence database accession numbers are included. Newly reported sequences must be documented by an herbarium specimen. Previously published sequences may cite the voucher or a literature reference where voucher information is given.
- All data sets for phylogenetic analyses must be submitted to TreeBASE (http://www.treeBASE.org). A TreeBASE accession number (study number alone is acceptable) should be cited in the Materials and Methods section in the final version of the manuscript. For manuscript review, either submit the data file together with the manuscript (if data not yet in TreeBASE) or provide the name and P.I.N. of the author who submitted the data to TreeBASE. Referees will need this information to gain access to the submitted data sets.
- Italicize the full name of a gene, e.g., rbcL, matK.
- Representative photographic figures should be provided to document interpretations of isozymes/allozymes.
- In addition to character state distributions, consistency index, and retention index (where appropriate), some measure of support for clades (e.g., bootstrap values, decay indices ["Bremer support"], jackknife, etc.) must be provided for phylogenetic analyses.
- Indicate in Materials and Methods the percentage of data matrix cells scored as missing data.
When the data matrix is not part of the manuscript the data file or TreeBASE access information must be provided with submitted manuscript for use by reviewers.
- Voucher specimens should be cited in an appendix to document sources of morphological and molecular data. Vouchers are herbarium specimens, not living plant accession numbers from botanical gardens or DNA tube numbers, etc.
- Additional analyses or bulky non-cladistic data sets can be placed on the ASPT website as online supplemental material. Online posting should be used sparingly, and data and analyses essential to the conclusions in the paper should appear in the published manuscript unless the length is prohibitive. Online supplemental material should not duplicate materials available on TreeBASE, GenBank, or other online sources.
- Materials for online posting should usually be pdf files. Data sets may be in Excel format, or formatted for an appropriate analytical program. Keep files under 1 MB if possible.
- Contributions to the Commentary Section may be submitted that discuss recent articles or current topics in systematics. These should be no more than five printed pages. In general, the format for longer articles should be followed.
- An attempt will be made to solicit a “Counterpoint” view to be published immediately following the commentary to facilitate more timely discussion on topics of particular interest. The commentary author will receive the counterpoint text before final manuscript is submitted.
- XII. What and Where to Submit
- Before submission, have all coauthors read the manuscript critically.
- Papers longer than 50 printed pages should be sent to Editor-in-Chief of Systematic Botany Monographs.
- Microsoft Word format is preferred; contact the Editor in Chief if you are unable to submit in Word format. Ensure that all files are free of hidden comments or tracked changes.
- For review copy, keep file sizes down by using jpeg format and reduced pixel density for figures (keep good quality figure files for later submission of final revised manuscript). If possible, keep files under 3 MB.
- File name must include the surname of the first author and date of submission (e.g., Clark20Nov02.doc).
- Cover letter. This should include any special instructions, any address change during the next several months, and phone and fax number and email address for the corresponding author. Names, addresses, and email addresses of possible objective reviewers should also be included.
- Submit cover letter, manuscript file, data file(s), tables, figures, and completed checklist (download file, complete, and save- file name: surname checklist.doc) to the Systematic Botany Editorial Manager website (see below).
- The author will receive an email message acknowledging receipt of the new submission. The manuscript will be forwarded to an Associate Editor for review.
- Final revised manuscript is submitted to the Systematic Botany Editorial Manager website.
- File name takes the form: Clark MS02-80 Final.doc [the manuscript number is assigned when a new manuscript is received]. The final version must be submitted as a word processing file. Do not send PDF files.
- Proofread figures carefully. They are the most difficult part of the paper to revise on short notice, or in proof. Editors and publisher cannot edit figures - author must provide revised files. The full cost of illustration changes in proof will be billed to the author.
- Please remember to remove line numbering, remove figures from manuscript file, include final TreeBASE study number, and update information for "in press" citations.
- Final revised manuscripts requiring significant editing by the Managing Editor to conform to Syst. Bot. style will be returned to authors causing significant delay in publication.
- Proofs and reprint order forms are sent to authors via email attachment as PDF files. Authors send corrected proof to Managing Editor and reprint orders to printer. Authors should make only necessary changes in proof. There is a mandatory charge for more than five changes made in proof.
Authors of accepted manuscripts may submit illustrations relevant to their manuscript to be considered for the cover as digital files directly to the Managing Editor for consideration. Cover illustrations should be square, a minimum of 750 x 750 pixels (8-bit color in CMYK or 8-bit grayscale for black and white photographs) or 2250 x 2250 pixels (black and white line drawings). The name of the species, family, manuscript author names, and manuscript number should be included with the file. Permission of copyright holders is required for any files submitted.
Submit manuscripts to http://www.editorialmanager.com/sysbot/. If this will be your first submission of a manuscript to the Systematic Botany Editorial Manager website, you must first register by clicking "register now" and following the instructions.
Note: All manuscript submissions (electronic, paper) are promptly acknowledged via email. If you do not receive an acknowledgement you should inquire to be sure it was received!
Questions? Contact the Editorial Office: